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Bibury is in fact two villages. Arlington lies to the west of the River Coln while Bibury itself is on the east. From burial mounds nearby we know that the site has been inhabited since prehistoric times and was later a thriving Roman village, as is clear from the many finds in the area.
It is likely that a church existed in Bibury as early as 750AD and much of the core of the present church is probably of Saxon origin, built in the late 10th century.
In the days of King Charles II, Bibury was as well known as Newmarket for its horseracing - so much so that in 1681 the Newmarket Spring Meeting was switched to Bibury when Parliament met at Oxford, less than an hour's drive away.
In the 17th and 18th centuries, Bibury prospered due to the wool trade, and it is during that time that many of the stone cottages were built, together with the Swan Hotel and the bridge over the Coln.
Also at this time the Manor Court was held at the Swan and not far from the hotel can be found the village lock-up – a small octagonal stone building.
Most of the Swan Hotel as we see it today was completed in the 19th Century.